Baking Powder – Reacting with Citric Acid

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Baking powder reacting with citric acid (present in lemon juice) , a weak organic acid.

Baking powder is a dry chemical leavening agent used to increase the volume & lighten the texture of baked goods (muffins, cakes, scones).

Baking powder works by releasing carbon dioxide gas into a batter or dough through an acid-base reaction, causing bubbles in the wet mixture to expand and thus leavening the mixture.
Acid-activated decomposition of baking soda can be generically represented as NaHCO
3 + H+ → Na+ + CO2 + H2O
The acid in a baking powder can be either fast-acting or slow-acting.  Low-temperature acid salts include cream of tartar & monocalcium phosphate (calcium acid phosphate).  High-temperature acid salts include
sodium aluminum sulfate, sodium aluminum phosphate, & sodium acid pyrophosphate.


The main picture was taken with a FUJIFILM brand camera, model FinePix S5700 S700 on Sunday 7th March 2010 by the Robert & Mihaela Vicol photographers.

As basic settings, an exposure time of 10/5500 (1.818ms ) was used with aperture f/3.5 and the ISO Speed of the camera was 64. Actual focal length of the lens was 630/100 (6.3mm) with unknown lens model (range).

The actual file size is 2.81 MBytes, resolution is 3072px on the horizontal and 2304px on the vertically and the original (or modified) file name is Baking-powder_92873.jpg (media type is image/jpeg).

The photo original orientation was portret with an X Resolution DPI equal to 72/1 and Y-Resolution DPI equal to 72/1.
Other camera settings (and APEX value) were the lens aperture 360/100, status of flash equal with 24, shutter speed 910/100 and brightness value 840/100 (6.3).

Note: The current image size corresponds to the original version but the original photo orientation it was changed to landscape.

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